Robertson’s Cycling Reflects Vancouver’s “New” Society

Just as when he dismissed concerned citizens as “hacks” and rode Skytrain two zones on a one-zone ticket, Mayor Gregor Robertson’s latest ignoring of traffic law is most revealing.

But what it shows, in my opinion, is not a flattering vision.

His Worship appears to think he’s above the mere masses.  He’s not illiterate, so I could only conclude he  believed that he didn’t have to exactly observe all the transit zone rules when he underpaid his fare …   close enough was good enough;  he’s not a political novice, yet couldn’t seem to understand how people can actually show up at “public” meetings to honestly and sincerely criticize or suggest changes to his proposals… unless they are partisan hacks.

In a radio interview Tuesday, respected city blogger Frances Bula suggested that outcomes on almost everything before Vancouver council these days seem to have been decided before any public meetings actually begin, and any “hearings” process or discussion are just a formality in what has become a rubber stamp process. 

Of course, when caught and exposed publicly, Robertson has apologized and tried to downplay the seriousness of his publicly displayed personal arrogance.

The latest cycling incident is another perfect example.

The Province’s Ethan Baron, in a good piece of reporting, recounted how Vancouver’s First Citizen, ignoring a red traffic light,  rode right out of the Dunsmuir bike lane directly  into the path of a transit bus.

“He came around and didn’t even stop. He did not stop or look,” said Coast Mountain bus driver Michele MacDonald, a 15-year transit veteran. Apart from adding a frightening incident to her day, Robertson could also have been seriously injured, she added.

She only noticed it was The Mayor after the incident when she pulled up beside him … and at the next traffic light (he did stop!) she told him “You of all people should look left before you make a right turn on red.”

“You of all people” … Busted again!   No problem … been there, done that before. So Robertson once more  ap0logized … but apparently only to the bus driver.

Baron reports the City’s Chief Magistrate,  when interviewed,  was reluctant to admit wrongdoing. He said he wasn’t going AGAINST the red light, which was red, but argued it was only meant for traffic  going straight (huh?)  but he was turning right … in the crosswalk, so that was okay.

I see. So you can turn right on red lights now in Vancouver WITHOUT stopping? … You just have to stop if you plan to go straight ahead? …  You can also drive in a crosswalk?  (And we already have known for some time that cyclists need not stop at Stop signs either … whether going straight through or turning right … or left … inside the crosswalk. And you don’t really have to wear a helmet either … it’s only a suggestion.)

 This is the New Cycle Society Robertson has wrought.  Try these new rules ….   and if YOU ever get charged for doing  any of that, subpoenae the Mayor as your “Expert” Witness.

What we’re really seeing evolving is here in Vancouver is what I call a  Selectively Ruled Society: the rules only apply to certain people, not to others; laws applied to certain people, not to others; and enforcement is used as a political instrument as much as a legal one.

Membership certainly has its privileges!

For example, if a group of Vancouver motorists decided that, on Sunday afternoons, they would only stop or slow down  “as needed”  at traffic lights or stop signs, the crackdown would be immediate and costly. But EVERY last Friday of EVERY month in Vancouver now, thousands of cyclists totally ignore  traffic laws, traffic  lights, stop signs, motorists’ rights’,   pedestrians’ rights’  … in a city-wide fit of self indulgence and disrespect for others: but totally get away with it.  Why? 

A new law about to go into force will turn me into a criminal if, even in a remote place on Spanish Banks beach, I light up my pipe and I have no doubt a bylaw officer will readily strike;  but let a few dozen show up for a doobie fest on the beach some evening or a few hundred in the plaza in front of the Art Gallery, and I’d bet none would be charged.  Why?

 On sidewalks in some areas of the city, there are retail blanket-like shopping malls on city sidewalks up and down entire blocks, with no interference; but let a small retail business owner put a  sandwich board sign or couple of tables and chairs on a city sidewalk and the wrath of  regulation will soon reign down from City Hall. Why?

It’s all part of Vancouver’s “new” society that applies different rules and enforcement levels to those in favour and those who are not (that’s most of us).

Seen in this light, Robertson ignoring of rules and lack of respect for proper process is just part of the new standard in Vancouver … a “free pass” … good for all zones! … if you’re part of the “in” crowd.

If you’re not … then YOU have no rights, and they’ll force you to comply …and, of course, pay to support their bad habits.

Harv Oberfeld

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24 Responses to Robertson’s Cycling Reflects Vancouver’s “New” Society

  1. SC says:

    How refreshing it would be for a politican to say, “Yes, I screwed up badly, and I’m sorry”. Instead, we get this backtracking crap, with politicans thinking that we’re stupid enough, not to know what’s going on. At the same time, if there was a politican that said something like that, I’d have to look outside and see if the end of the world is near!

    I live on a cycling path, and I’ve lost count the number of times I’ve had to dodge cyclists (and cars) while crossing a clearly marked intersection with stop signs. More often than not, the drivers show some contrition, while I usually get either a dirty look or yelled at by cyclists running a stop sign.

    As for the His Worship to be subponaed, if anyone tries the new rules is fantastic. If our leaders can flout our laws, why can’t we?

    It astounds me how this Mayor and council has completely lost touch with the majority of Vancouverites. I reluctantly voted for Gregor Robertson and happily voted for *some* Vision Vancouver councillors. As the old saying goes, “fool me once, shame on you…” Not going to get fooled again, but at the same time, we need a viable alternative and quick!

    (Response: It boggles my mind too much disdain they seem to feel towards the vast majority who put them in power…catering to and caring about mostly those on the periphery. The real question though is who will other civic parties have on the ballot. Can hardly wait to see….and ready to be disappointed. h.o)

  2. mariner says:

    It seems to me that Gregor Robinson should be wearing a green card with a black capital N written on it 🙂 !!!!

    (Response: You may want to suggest that to him … but don’t fret if he dismisses you as just a hack. h.o)

  3. sunshine coast girl says:

    What kills me about cyclists is they seem to feel that they can have both the road and the sidewalk! Make up your minds guys. I can’t safely walk on the road because of cars and bikes and I can’t safely walk on the sidewalk either, due to bikes. They don’t seem to obey any of the rules. When are we going to deal with pedestrian safety?

    (Response: Seems bicyclists are more important to city offiicals than pedestrians. Just look at the Burrard Bridge treatment of both. h.o)

  4. Regeena says:

    I am also a transit operator and am also familiar with the rules being flouted by cyclist and pedestrians alike.
    My passengers are getting pissed off with cyclists on the sidewalk, in cross walks. There have been many near misses as passengers step off.
    Pedestrians jay walking is another issue. Traffic flow is being delayed due to the fact pedestrians are not respecting the flashing hand or vehicle traffic turn signals.
    Just last night a cyclist blew through a stop sign narrowly getting hit by car. She must be a member of the Roberston bike squad.
    It is time police departments started cracking down on this flagrant disregard of the rules. Maybe the fines could help pay for another temporary bike lane and the pretty planter boxes.
    Cyclists need to be licensed and carry vehicle insurance. As it stands right now if they are at fault and damage your vehicle your insurance pays. That means cehicle owner has to pay the deductible and your insurance increases accordingly.
    Cyclists it is your turn if the intersection is a four way stop.
    If you are at an intersection that has throughway traffic and YOU have a stop sign, YOU can only proceed when it is SAFE. YOU are NOT a pedestrian YOU are operting a VEHICLE.
    I think part of the problem is most cyclists have never operated a motor vehicle or have very little experience. Their lack of respect for the rules of the road are very telling.
    Screwing up and nearly getting hit by a car, saying sorry helps, but think for a moment, how do you think how the driver of the car is feeling after you placed yourself illegally in front? Hitting another human is a god awful experience that will never, NEVER leave you. Same goes with close calls. Immediately your mind starts playing the what if scenarios.
    I can tell you Michelle would have been shaking for the rest of her shift and into her evening. Not because she was mad (that comes later) but rather because of how close her bus came to KILLING someone who didn’t care enough to look.
    Riding a bike without a helmut. Riding at night dressed a Johnny Cash. Riding at night without a head light. Riding at night without a red tail light. Riding a bike and making turns without signalling. Riding a bike on the sidewalk, dodging pedestrians and senior citizens. Riding your bike in cross walk. Riding your bike down a one walk street. Riding your bike with ear phones. Riding your bike between cars. If a vehicle operator did any of those things the book would thrown at them. Period. You, Mr/Mrs Cyclist, for the love of your life, should be more careful.
    Tell me, will your last breath be strongest to say sorry as you lay dying on a filthy pavement?

    (Response: Be careful! Last year, when I suggested bicyclists/bicycles should be licensed, insured and pay fees like other road users …I unleashed the wrath of the cycling lobby. Funny thing..I support the idea of expanding cycling from a health, environmental, cost point of view..I just also respect the rights of others, including motorists, businesses and pedestrians ..and this seems to put me and so many others at odds with the “ision-aries” who I believe are prepared to run roughshod and even kill businesses and jobs just to give the cyclists special Royal privileges. h.o)

  5. Doesn't apply to me says:

    Seems to be the new ideology. I find it amazing that humans believe that stepping out/riding out in the path of a vehicle, 1 Ton plus, won’t do severe damage to a body that is 95% water. So much for common sense. But I suppose that this vehicle is ‘just supposed to stop for me’. We have all kinds of laws in this province that ‘just don’t apply to me’. We have a premier that was found guilty of impaired driving (doesn’t matter where) and yet he is still in office. Does that mean that the next impaired driver should be able to plead the ‘gordo’ defense. Doesn’t matter that severe and irreparable damage to is done to others, it’s just about ‘getting away with it’. Oh yes, I forgot, it is ‘ALL ABOUT ME.’

    (Response: Actually there do seem to be different rules for different folks: the premier pleaded guilty ..but somehow still seems to be able to travel quite freely to the U.S. …can someone please explain that to me; Conrad Black denounced Canada, renounced his citizenship, is a convicted felon and no longer a Canadian …yet seems quite likely to be able to soon come to Canada to live … because he has a Canadian wife and owns a home here. Is that the new rule? Wonder if you and I would ever be able to do either of these things so easily! h.o)

  6. Henri Paul says:

    Me thinks people may be missing the big picture on this bicycle issue, I suggest, go with the flow ,the more the merrier, ride your bicycle or get an electric bicycle, the hard ass bike riders “hate them”.
    If your not stable enough on a two wheeler, then get the three wheel electric model complete with a large rear carrier.
    The sooner more bikes, either pedal power or electric hit the streets, the sooner the city will take a financial hit.
    Bike riders are quite frugal with their money.Who makes money on bicycle riders?
    Less cars will affect gas stations, repair shops , parking arcades, staff may be laid off due to low vehicle volume.
    Merchants who no longer have parking at curbside or in their vicinity could close or cut back on staff and hours .
    The city will lose revenue due to loss of parking meter revenue , gasoline taxes.

    Harv, when at the beach,simply step into the water a few feet, light up your pipe ,your then beyond the bylaw enforcement powers.
    I would assume the Vancouver bylaw enforcers jurisdiction can only extend to the high water mark ,from that point on, its federal property or maybe even native jurisdiction . Isn’t e.g. all of Stanley Park on first nations land .
    Tell the the bylaw enforcer that its a ceremonial pipe with ceremonial tobacco , your exercising your relgious rights as allowed under the charter of rights.
    Ive taken on goofy local bylaws a few times, and succeed ,I might add.

    I totally agree ,when you say”It’s all part of Vancouver’s “new” society that applies different rules and enforcement levels to those in favour and those who are not (that’s most of us).

    What you must realize is , “they” cannot cheery pick the bylaws , all must be enforced equally, therefor that is where you hold their feet to the fire.
    I know of a case where a fella caused a small city hall to become over run with paperwork and bogged down with bureaucratic quagmire due to their treating him poorly.

    (Response: Brilliant ideas! Is the water real cold? Would smoking my tobacco as a religious purification process give me tax exampt status? This could lead to a U.N. Human Rights complaint … if only I could learn to keep a straight face while doing it all! LOL! Ooops. h.o)

  7. D. M. Johnston says:

    Mayor “Moonbeam” Robertson’s actions reminds me of an old rugby song.

    The working class can kiss my ass; I got the foreman’s job at last.

    It seems BC elite class do think themselves above the law; superior in action and deed of the hoi polloi. Move over Gordo & Mikey, another Vancouver Mayor who is turning into a major embarrassment.

    (Response: Now there’s a “proposal” … these days that means the decision has probably been made …to extend the dedicated bike route right up Horny to link Burrard Bridge to Dunsmuir. Will a hundred more parking spaces outside businesses be removed? .. …More destroyed jobs/companies? More no right turn intersections? More vehicle backlogs … more going around the blocks with lots more air pollution? Is anyone adding up the cost of all this??? h.o)

  8. C. W. says:

    The latest: Seperated bike lane on Hornby Street. City Hall will hold public consultation until September.

    Mr. Mayor: please save us- the Vancouver property tax payers – some money and time.

    You and your council have aleady made up your mind. The so called consultation is just for show.

    I believe your atttitude towards people having different opinions from you and council, was clear and loud (ooops..damn these microphones!!)

    (Response: Exactly! Their mind is made up; the consultation will be a farce; I just wonder where they’re finding the MILLIONS to pursue these projects (incl $300,000 on the idea of trearing down the viaducts!) when just weeks ago, in trying to come up weith a budget, they told us all kinds of cuts needed just to maintain basic services. h.o)

  9. Glen H says:


    They’re getting the money from the $25 Million they diverted from Engineering, which all of the councillors, including Suzanne Anton supported.

    No money for the Petting Zoo, kids and families.

    No money for the Bloedel, kids and families.

    No money for community centres, kids and families.

    But lots of money for bike lanes which are now costing the city lost revenue on top of the setup fees.

    Big mistake on this one though.

    You see, the reason they’re spending on this like drunken sailors in a whorehouse, is because they figure no subsequent politician will have the balls to pull out what they put in, because that will cost even more money.

    In fact, I’ve heard that comment from several politicos already. Of course that would take a politician with balls and some REAL vision.

    The point Vision Vancouver is missing is that a business case can be made for pulling it all out because their initiatives are starting to reduce city revenue while increasing the burden on the city taxpayer.

    A smart politician, if such a thing exists, will come in with a friendly and pro-DVBIA stance, and rip out these lanes, with incentives to assist businesses in the downtown core which pay huge tax rates. More businesses in the downtown core mean more revenue and every one that closes up shop means less.

    Another strategy would be to have a fund raising drive to raise the money to pay for pulling them out. Any driver in a car downtown would gladly throw $20 into the kitty to rid the city of these terribly designed and implemented lanes.

    There’s a third strategy yet, but I’ll save that one for now.

    Vision thinks they can spend enough to prevent it from coming out, but they’re dead wrong.

    As for the NPA, don’t count on them fielding good, common sense candidates. The ones still drinking at the trough support this Vision nonsense, including some that have come out in support of pulling down the viaducts.

    Until the NPA revoke these “membership” holders, including some board members, and send them over to Vision where they belong, they’re doomed.

    And for the record this started long ago with the NPA bringing people like the anti-car Gordon Price, into the party. If anyone forgets the arrogance he exuded while a councillor, just go back and read some of the columns he used to write and locate some old council clips. The guy was a major a-h*le.

    Today this nonsense is continued with Suzanne Anton, and frankly there is not much difference in policy between the two parties.

    And despite the campaign over at City Caucus to bring Tung Chan into the NPA as a mayoral candidate, he won’t win.

    All lefties and salon socialists Harv. The center is open for the taking.

    (Response; Scary! But it rings so true. Vision’s divide and conquer priorities would seem to create an opening for a civic party of the center…but I too am not sure the NPA owns that position. If they’re smart that’s where they’ll concentrate their efforts, with candidates to match. But if they come out with pompous reactionary stuffed shirts who only represent business interests, Vision could win another term. And we can only imagine what they’d have up their sleeves then! Maybe a $10 daily electronic charge for any car entering the downtown peninsula? But free bike lanes on every second street? (Cater to those youngest with least disposable income and to hell with the older carbound boomers.) Wouldn’t that be great for businesses! h.o)

  10. Wilson says:

    Damned well said Oberfeld. We’ve had a string of bad luck. First we had that groups of nutbars on the anti-Wall Mart crusade. Next up it was Mr. eco-density nothing and now this current pack of clowns hell bent on this crazy cycling jihad. I see no vision here.

    (Response: And don’t forget that loony proposal to build a bike/pedestrian only new bridge across False Creek … wonder if they get re-elected if we could spend millions on that. The irony is it’s all supposed to about improving air quality..tell that to anyone walking downtown who now has to endure extra fumes from all those cars backed up in traffic or going round and round because they cant turn right or ask the residents on Beach Ave who now choke regularly for several blocks west of Burrard as traffic backs up. Clearly they dont care about the environment as much as they do about blind ideology. h.o)

  11. D. M. Johnston says:

    Vancouver’s politicos are all wearing rose coloured glasses. The now Vision(less) ruling party at city hall are no better than the previous NPA administration, as they all suffering from the Vancouver disease, where anyone who lives in Vancouver perceives that they are indeed living in the centre of the universe and god only shines on them.

    Look at the regional transit debate. Vancouver has 3 major metro lines and the last one built, the RAV/Canada Line was exceedingly expensive subway, because the Vancouver politicians had a hissy fit if very much cheaper LRT was built on the Arbutus corridor.

    The Canada Line was planned for by former Vancouver bureaucrats and politicians and sold to former Vancouver Mayor and now Premier Gordo the Great.

    According to Susan Heyes, the cost of the Canada Line maybe as high as $2.8 billion and regional taxpayers are paying for Vancouver’s 24kt gold transit planning.

    This may soon change as the Municipality of Surrey’s population will soon surpass that of Vancouver and Surrey’s politicos and taxpayers want their fair share of transit funding. If TransLink doesn’t deal with this growing rift (the current mayor equated TransLink to the Mafia!), TransLink may split into two entities. If TransLink does indeed split, Vancouver’s taxpayers (as well as Burnaby, Richmond and New West taxpayers) maybe overwhelmed with a 200% to 400% increase in the TransLink property tax.

    Vision(less) or whoever will be in power will be faced with serious fiscal problems as Vancouver, will hit ‘S P L A T’, like a bug on a windshield, with a new fiscal reality.

    Not going to happen you say?

    Well in 1988, if you said that the two Germany’s would be united, you would have been laughed at!

  12. Cam B says:

    I think that the many people that require electric scooters to get about should form their own critical mass movement and occupy as many bike lanes as they can. What’s good for the goose is good for the gander.

    (Response: Or how about a Critical Mass of PEDESTRIANS ..getting together en masse once a month and blocking the bike lanes: wouldn’t that make a point with cyclists! h.o)

  13. Ron says:

    I wish you would comment on the glaring theft of rights that the BC Liberals have started with changes to the Freedom Of Information legislation. I watched Vaughn Palmer (just a gov’t boot licker in my opinion) who, on Thursday night’s (July 29, 2010) show on Shaw, had gone over how Guido Campbell has trampled all over this legislation. I suggest you try to view it and comment. We have been hijacked by gov’t and now I believe only bullets will get it back.

  14. shadow says:

    I could sit and write about cyclists all day and night for days and still not get it all out. The intersection of 8th and Trimble has a 4 way stop sign. I drive my kids down the street to the school there. The UBC cycling group use that route to school. I don’t think that a days has gone past where I have witnessed many cyclists run the stop sign and almost get hit. One day I was several cars back at the stop sign and a cyclist passed me,ran the stop and narrowly missed a mother with a stroller and a car. He also had no helmet on. I have sent letters to Police and ICBC and suggested a short campaign there might help educate the cyclists. Nothing! The church on the corner has a pit stop for cyclists every year at the beginning of school where they have drinks and phamplets I suggested that maybe a phamplet on the rules of the road be put there. Nothing! Everyone talks like they will do something and nobody does anything. I have even ried to get a tv station to sit there for a while and film.nothing!
    And as for your pipe smoking at the beach I read a story the other day re drinking on the beaches of San Diego where you could legally drink if you were in the water. Thousands and thousands of college students come with every flotation devices and drink legally a few feet from shore. City council has decided that they don’t like that so they are drafting a new bylaw that say you can’t drink withing a “marine league” of shore. How funny is that? How long has it been since anyone has used the term “league”? I have talked to several mariners and they just laughed.
    Let me know when you go to spanish banks with your pipe and I’ll join you with mine. By the way is the no smoking law a Vancouver one because further up Spanish banks is GVRD NOT Vancouver I think although Vancouver Lifeguards do patrol there. I know VPD’s never inforced anything past Spanish Banks west concession stand and let the RCMP do the rest

    (Response: Wow! Interesting idea about UBC lands not being part of Vancouver ..thus perhaps exempt from bylaw patrols. Although I would much prefer a system where we respect each other’s rights …like we do with dog owners…I’m sure they could have smoking areas set well aware from other areas so even drifitng smoke (which disipates in open air quite quickly) doesnt bother others. But with Vision there is no accommodation …just trample over those who disagree with you …whether it’s smokers or motorists or pedestrians … even if it means putting long time retailers out of business, choking local residents with smog etc h.o)

  15. Regeena says:

    If I may make a suggestion.
    Video tape the louts blowing the stop signs, and then post it on you tube. Make it go viral.
    Just last night I mentioned to a cyclist that he needed a headlight for his bike. He said he owned one and that it is in his backpack.
    As for crtical mass,
    Motorists stuck behind them; lay on the car horn. Don’t stop. Keep on honking. Excersise your right to freedom of expression.
    We sensible folks need to turn the tables on the wing nuts.
    See how they like being served the same crap they shove on us.

  16. Henri Paul says:

    Cam B // Jul 30, 2010 at 6:37 am
    In my above comment Henri Paul // Jul 29, 2010 at 8:53 pm , I intended to mention electric scooters along with electric bicycles.
    If you use or have an electric scooter, by all means use the bicycle lanes. If it were me, I sure as hell would. Electric scooters and electric bikes have the same entitlement as the pedal bicycles, in some instances maybe even more, due to people with disabilities.
    This is what I was alluding in my opening comment to in my earlier comment , I believe the Vancouver council doesn’t realize that they have opened the gates to hell on this subject.

  17. shadow says:

    Thanks but I have tried that. I also videotaped the parents and others who run the stop sign by the elementary school. OVER 50%.
    What has really ticked me off is that in grade 7 the students spend a few weeks with teachers riding their bikes around town. Guess what? The teachers don’t know the rules of the road! I have watched them letting the kids enmasse run stop signs etc. At my favourite intersection a teacher got off her bike and stopped traffic and waved the kids through as if they were a Presidential convoy. Some kids did not have helmets. I have complained about that to several different principals as well as Patti Bacchus.The police and ICBC too. Nothing. You know if one of those kids is hurt through negligence of a teacher on one of their rides what would happen to the school board budget. The parent would own the school board i’ll bet. So you see our kids are even being trained wrong in school for later on in life. Teachers should be required to pass a bycycle safety course BEFORE they are allowed to guide the kids. MY son refused to go on these trip because he knew the dangers.Now hes going to high school and I’ll see what happens there.
    PS NEVER be around a mother driving to school to pick up her kid and shes late,NEVER.

  18. shadow says:

    PS. Last summer I was driving at Spanish banks and a group of cyclests were follow me so closely that they could have been hanging on to my bumper. I was pissed so I signaled right and turned into one of the parking lots. Next thing I knew a cyclyst was beside me on the grass and then fell in front of my car. I almost hit him. He saw my signal but was passing me on the inside between my car and the grass and had to jump the curb to get out of my way. There wasn’t even a foot of clearance between me and the grass.
    He got up awearing and was complaining and said to me”why does this always happen to me?”
    He still hasn’t figured it out!

    (Response: Hey…didn’t ask him, did you, if he ever plans to run for mayor? h.o)

  19. Lynn says:

    We motorists pay for infrastructure improvements. Roads, repaving, lights all through gas taxes.
    If they want a lane to themselves great. They should be required through licensing and insurance to pay for it.
    Quite simple: USER PAYS.

  20. Henri Paul says:

    (Response: Hey…didn’t ask him, did you, if he ever plans to run for mayor? h.o)
    Good one Harv. Your still quick on the old(er) feet.

  21. shadow says:

    Both the Mayor and Geoff Meggs have had bike problems in the last little while. Meggs almost went to the big bike rack in the sky. Both caused (in the writer’s opinion .. h.o) by their complete lack of obeying simple traffic laws. Maybe if we wait long enough we won’t have to vote for them as they will not be here.
    AND NO HO I didn’t ask the guy if he wanted to run for Mayor he was to busy swearing at me. (I know he’s perfect)

    (Response: Even if I disagree with them, would never want to see anyone injured or worse. But you would think our “leaders” would set better examples of obeying the rules and respecting the rights of others, and not just their own agendas. h.o)

  22. Ruraidh says:

    The problem for VISION is that they mistook the phrase POLITICAL CYCLE to mean bike lanes not to chronological events between elections.

  23. Robertson’s great step………

  24. Hi.
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